McAfee SECURE sites help keep you safe from identity theft, credit card fraud, spyware, spam, viruses and online scams Toll Free (866) 526-2873
sales@americanscreeningcorp.com
Tel: 318 798 3306 | Fax: 318 798 3386
PO & Money orders Accepted.
Click to verify BBB accreditation and to see a BBB report.

facebook twitter linkedin Googleplus Instagram

Drug Information

Here you will find particular information sections about each drug. We hope this will help you become more knowledgeable about different drugs and their classifications, metabolism, abuse and testing methods, and how ASC can help you with your needs.

Alcohol

About

The name and individual properties of common alcohols are determined by the number of carbons. Common alcohols can be primary (such as methanol and ethanol), secondary (such as isopropanol) or tertiary (such as N-butanol). When testing for alcohol, we are usually dealing with ethanol, which is also referred to as “beverage alcohol”.

Metabolism

Ethanol is a soluble molecule that penetrates membranes through the GI tract, including the mouth, small intestine and stomach. There are many factors that affect the rate of absorption, including drinking patterns, the amount of food in the stomach, the type of beverage consumed, etc. About 95 percent of an alcohol dose is metabolized by liver enzymes, and about 5 percent is eliminated through urine, feces, sweat and breath. Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde and to a final end product of acetic acid. Because alcohol has a strong affinity for water, it will be dispersed into body tissue or urine, saliva, plasma, and more. 

Abuse

Alcohol is the most popular and widely consumed drug in the world. While it is present in a finitude of beverages (usually fermented or distilled), it is also present in an assortment of other products and industries. Alcohol is commonly abused, and its effects, both short- and long-term, vary depending on a number of factors, that range from decreased inhibitions and sensory-motor impairment to slurred speech, loss of consciousness, and even coma and death. Long-term abuse can lead to liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, and a number of other serious neurological and metabolic disorders.

Testing

Enzyme assay through alcohol dehydrogenase is the most used technique for detecting alcohol in urine. This is an appropriate method for clinical settings, and it does not detect methanol and acetone. In forensics, other methods are required for a secondary and more definitive result. For example, gas chromatographic methods are very accurate in their quantitations, and are important when relating level of impairment to alcohol concentration, which is particularly useful as evidence for presumption of impairment.

Amphetamines

About

Amphetamine and methamphetamine are some of the most commonly abused drugs in many parts of the United States. They are readily synthesized and can be snorted, smoked, taken intravenously or orally. Amphetamines also include a number of over-the-counter medications (for example, phenylpropanolamine, pseudoephedrine, ephedrine), and the also widely used MDMA and Ecstasy, which are Schedule I drugs. Amphetamines reproduce  the effects of certain neurotransmitters, affecting the nervous system.

Metabolism

While a small part of methamphetamine (6 percent) is metabolized and excreted as amphetamine, nearly half (44 percent) is excreted primarily unchanged. Amphetamines are excreted unchanged (30 percent) into the urine or deactivated by the liver, after rapid absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Amphetamines appear in the urine within only a few hours after being taken, being detected usually for up to 72-96 hours.

Abuse

Methamphetamine is widely abused across the States, and has become a major problem in many Western sates. It is also known as crystal meth, ice, crank, speed, and others. It is often smoked in glass pipes. There are many signs and symptoms related to the use of methamphetamine, varying according to duration and amount of use. Infrequent and low doses are usually characterized by euphoria, low appetite, sexual arousal, alertness, decreased fatigue, and talkativeness, along with increased blood pressure and heart rate. A number of additional effects are usually present with higher doses and prolonged use, including aggressiveness, paranoia, hypersexuality and anxiety, along with dry mouth, hippus, tachycardia, increased body temperature and dilated pupils. After binge use, crash symptoms can include extreme mental and physical fatigue, prolonged periods of sleep and depression. Overdose often leads to hallucination, coma, and death. 

Testing

The most frequently used immunoassay for detecting amphetamines in urine is EIA (enzyme immunoassay). It detects amphetamines as well as methamphetamine to different degrees of specificity and sensitivity. Note that confirmatory testing is important for positive immunoassay tests, as such tests cross-react with a number of over-the-counter cold and diet preparations. For confirmatory tests, Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) are usually used, providing a high degree of specificity and sensitivity.

Barbiturates

About

Barbiturates are classified as sedative/hypnotics, as they may produce different degrees of sedation or hypnosis via CNS depression. Such variations are subcategorized according to the duration of the effects: ultra-short (15 minutes), short, intermediate (amobarbital, butalbital, pentobarbital, secobarbital), and long acting (phenobarbital, one day or more). Barbiturates can also be used for migraine relief or as anticonvulsants.

Metabolism

Barbiturates’ distribution takes place throughout the body, though mainly in the brain, liver and kidneys. As mentioned above, acting times may vary depending on lipid solubility and the extent of protein binding (the higher the solubility and protein binding, the shorter the duration of effects). While barbiturates with short and intermediate acting time are almost completely metabolized and excreted in the urine, up to 50 percent of a long-acting barbiturate dose is excreted unchanged. Short-acting barbiturates are detectable in urine for 24 hours, and long-acting barbiturates can be detected for up to three week after use.

Abuse

Butalbital (prescribed for migraine relief and muscle relaxation) and phenobarbital (prescribed for seizure disorders) are commonly detected abused barbiturates. Street names vary according to the barbiturate, but include Blue Devils, Downers, Goofballs, Yellow Jackets and Seconal. The chronic abuse of barbiturates causes tolerance, and sudden discontinuance can lead to life-threatening conditions.

Testing

Barbiturates are readily detectable via immunoassays, and confirmatory tests (GC/MS, LC/MS/MS) can identify and specify the barbiturate used.

Benzodiazepines

About

Also called “benzos”,  benzodiazepines are a class of psychoactive drugs, primarily classified as anti-anxiety, hypnotics (sleep-inducing), sedative, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant. They are categorized as short, intermediate or long-acting.

Metabolism

Benzodiazepines are quickly distributed throughout the body after oral administration, then metabolized by the liver and slowly excreted in the urine. Different benzodiazepines can have varied metabolism pathways, causing detectability periods to also vary: while prescribed doses can be detected up to three days, long use can stretch excretion (and thus detection) times up to six weeks after use. Benzodiazepines are widely prescribed in the United States, and are also majorly abused through recreational use. Alprazolam, under the trade name Xanax, and Dizaepam, under the trade name Valium, are among the most widely abused benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepine abusers are often poly-drug abusers, meaning that they will often use it with alcohol or other drugs. High doses, over extended periods of time, can lead to dependency and abrupt cessation may lead to withdrawal effects.

Testing

Immunoassay methods such as EIA (enzyme immunoassay) are the most common ways to test for benzodiazepines in urine. However, because benzodiazepines are a complex and highly varied group, along with being largely metabolized in urine, urine testing is not always able to determine the parent drug; additionally, therapeutic use may not be detected due to dosage levels and half-life variations. It is recommended that confirmation tests are performed for positive results. Confirmation can be done via GC/MS or LC/MS/MS. It is important to carefully chose the best method for a particular benzodiazepine, as different methods will provide different sensitivity and specificity to different types of benzodiazepines.

BUPRENOPHINE

About

Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic derivative of thebaine, with analgesic as well as opioid antagonist properties. In higher doses, it is used to treat opioid addiction, and in lower dosages to control moderate acute pain or chronic pain. Buprenorphine has potent analgesic effects, and can be overdosed alone or in combination with other drugs, possibly leading to hallucinations, dizziness, hypotension, seizures, respiratory difficulty, coma, and even death.

Metabolism

Buprenorphine is quickly metabolized in the liver, and is excreted in urine almost completely as the conjugate glucuronide, which leaves a very small amount and very low concentrations of free drug to be excreted. This varies according to use (that is, therapeutic doses vs. abuse).

Abuse

Buprenorphine, while widely used to reduce opioid/heroin cravings, can also be abused. At the same time that there are risks involved, they are usually lower than the risks posed by methadone or heroin abuse, unless combined with sedatives. Side effects can include vomiting, nausea and constipation, and opioid withdrawal can occur in individuals on high doses of other opioids; in this case, symptoms can include those mentioned above, alongside muscle cramps and aches, tearing, diarrhea, sweating, fever, insomnia, irritability and running nose.

Testing

Detection of buprenorphine is usually done via enzyme immunoassay, which has equal cross reactivity to the primary urinary metabolite, norpubrenorphine. Positive tests should go through confirmation via methods like GC/MS or LC/MS/MS.

Cocaine

About

Cocaine is a strong stimulant derived from coca plant leaves and used mostly as a recreational drug. Cocaine is highly addictive because of its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. It has both a local anesthetic action and an indirect-acting sympathomimetic action. It is usually snorted, but it can also be inhaled (smoked in crack form) or taken via intravenous injection.

Metabolism

Cocaine has high absorption, with peak plasma concentrations at about five minutes for smoking and 30-40 minutes if snorted. The drug is extensively metabolized, primarily in the liver, and only around one percent of the unchanged drug is excreted in the urine. Cocaine metabolites (the major ones being benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester) may be detectable in urine, depending on the user’s liver and kidney function, for up to 96 hours after use. For regular users, cocaine metabolites may also be detected in sections of hair grown during use.

Abuse

As mentioned above, cocaine is highly addictive and provides short and intense highs upon use, which depend on the amount and duration of use. Infrequent and low doses are usually characterized by euphoria, low appetite, sexual arousal, alertness, decreased fatigue, and talkativeness, along with increased blood pressure and heart rate. A number of additional effects are usually present with higher doses and prolonged use, including aggressiveness, paranoia, hypersexuality and anxiety, along with dry mouth, hippus, tachycardia, increased body temperature and dilated pupils. After binge use, crash symptoms can include extreme mental and physical fatigue, prolonged periods of sleep and depression. Overdose often leads to hallucination, coma, and death. 

Testing

Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) specifically detects the metabolite benzoylecgonine, but can also detect cocaine and the metabolite ecognine methyl ester. As with other drugs, GC/MS and LC/MS/MS are widely used for confirmation of positive initial tests, providing great sensitivity and specificity.

 

Designer Stimulants

About

As the name suggests, Designer Stimulants are a number of recreational drugs synthesized in laboratories. While the most popular example is LSD, technology advances and chemical expertise have recently led to a surge of new designer drugs. Such drugs are designed to mimic the effects of illegal recreational drugs, which are attempts to defy illegal status and make it more difficult to test. Thus, these drugs have gained quick and widespread popularity, appearing as alternatives to cocaine and amphetamines. Designer drugs are highly addictive and have high potential for abuse.

Metabolism

Designer drugs are excreted unchanged in the urine and as the hydroxy-metabolites conjugate.

Abuse

Designer drugs are found online and are also sold as bath salts at smoke shops, under a number of names, including Red Dove, Vanilla Sky, Hurricane Charlie, Ivory Wave, Cloud Nine, and Bliss. These drugs are produced in illegal labs. Composed of crystallized chemicals, designer drugs can be swallowed, smoked or snorted, mimicking the action of MDMA, methamphetamine and cocaine. However, it has been suggested that designer drugs are even more toxic than the ‘originals’, leading to more dangerous and severe effects such as aggressiveness, tachycardia, and even paranoia and suicide, in addition to the regular effects of sensations of wellbeing, euphoria, alertness and delay in fatigue. The long-term effects of designer drugs are still unknown.

Testing

GC/MS or LC/MS/MS are widely used to test for designer drugs, and confirmation is performed through a second aliquot.

Diuretics

About

Diuretics prescription drugs used mainly to treat liver cirrhosis, heart failure, some kidney diseases and hypertension, and work mainly by elevating the rate of urine excretion. As they increase the excretion of water from the body, diuretics can lead to dehydration, muscle cramps, weakness, hypotension and disturbed electrolyte balance. Diuretics have low potential for abuse in the general population, and are not classified in the US as Controlled Substances.

Metabolism

The majority of diuretics are nearly completely excreted in the urine, with few metabolites.

Abuse

Diuretics can be abused as a weight-loss aid; it can also be used by athletes, which is an illegal practice. Diuretics can be used as a way of reducing the urine concentration of other illegal substances, making them more difficult to detect. As mentioned above, abuse of diuretics can lead to dehydration, which can be dangerous and lead to other complications.

Testing

GC/MS are widely used to detect diuretics, particularly by sports regulating agencies and doping control. LC/MS/MS has also been recently used.

GHB

Gamma-HydroxyButyric Acid (GHB)

About

Initially, GHB (or Gamma-HydroxyButyric Acid) was developed and used as an anesthetic. Today, it is mainly used as a replacement for steroids, as a sedation drug and is also used recreationally, mainly at raves. Because of its strong sedative effects, GHB is also considered a ‘date rape’ drug.

Metabolism

It is believed that GHB is extensively metabolized, and concentrations in urine vary according to doses. Of an oral dose, less than five percent is excreted unchanged in the urine, and depending on the dose, the drug is not detected after 12 hours.

Abuse

GHB is usually taken dissolved in water (two to three grams in water or other liquids), and effects appear within ten to thirty minutes of use. Effects include increased libido, drowsiness, euphoria, low inhibition, nausea and dizziness, and may last up to five hours. GHB is sometimes abused with other drugs such as alcohol, ketamine or heroin, and its toxic effects can lead to unconsciousness, coma and death. GHB is also known as “liquid Ecstasy”.

Testing

Detecting GHB is not easy. Because of its small size, there are a limited number of available immunoassays; however, specific methods like GC/MS or LC/MS/MS can detect GHB from urine after liquid-liquid extraction and silyl-derivatization.

Fentanyl

About

Fentanyl is a powerful narcotic analgesic, with over 100 times the strength of morphine. It is a fast-acting, short-duration synthetic drug. Like many other drugs, its first uses were pharmaceutical: it was first available in the 60s as an anesthetic supplement. Today, the drug is widely abused, and has curiously become popular among healthcare workers. The drug is easily available and provides feelings of euphoria. Toxic effects can include seizures, muscle rigidity, hypotension and coma. Deaths have also been reported.

Metabolism

Most of an intravenous dose of Fentanyl is excreted in the urine (around 85 percent), over a period of up to four days. The drug is metabolized by the liver, and is the amount that is excreted unchanged varies from minimal (under one percent) to six percent.

Abuse

Fentanyl became popular in the States as transdermal patches that can be eaten. The gel from the patches can also be extracted, which makes it possible to inhale or to use via intravenous injection. Fentanyl has been recently experienced a surge in abuse alongside heroin or cocaine, with high toxic effects and a number of reported deaths. Prolonged abuse or increased doses can result in effects such as aggressiveness, paranoia, hypersexuality, irritability and anxiety, along with hippus, dry mouth, tachycardia, dilated pupils, increased body temperature, hallucinations, coma, and possible death. Abrupt cessation is usually characterized by depression, mental and physical exhaustion and prolonged periods of sleep.

Testing

Screening for Fentanyl is usually done via immunoassay screens. Presumptive positive samples normally go through confirmation via GC/MS or LC/MS/MS.

Marijuana

About

Marijuana comes from the leaves and flowers of the Cannabis sativa plant, and is one of the most widely used drugs worldwide. With a number of other street names, marijuana can be smoked or ingested.

Metabolism

The absorption of THC takes place much more quickly when marijuana is smoked (within minutes) than when it is ingested (up to three hours). THC then is either absorbed into body tissues or metabolized into water-soluble metabolites, which are excreted in the urine. In chronic or repetitive smokers, THC is stored for longer periods, and eliminated at a relative constant rate. There are many variable that affect the detection and results of THC concentration in urine, including dosage, frequency, collection time in relation to use, hydration state, and rate of cannabinoids in fat tissue. As such, results indicate past marijuana use, rather than offering a direct relation to degree of impairment or intoxication.

Abuse

Marijuana is widely abused, and its effect include slow psychomotor responses, euphoria, relaxation, altered perceptions, affected multi-tasking abilities and short-term memory impairment.

Testing

Enzyme immunoassay is the most widely used screening method for cannabinoids. While it is rare that cross-reactivity to non-cannabinoid compounds will occur in immunoassay tests for cannabinoids, it is usually suggested that other specific analytical methods (such as GC/MS and LC/MS/MS) are used to confirm positive results. As mentioned above, retention times for THC vary according to a number of factors. For infrequent smoking (less than twice per week), retention time will usually be of up to three days. If an individual smokes several times per week, he or she may test positive for up to 21 days. Daily smokers will test positive for around 30 days, or even longer. For oral ingestion, retention ranges between one and five days. Passive inhalation will usually not test positive.

Methadone

About

Methadone is a drug with narcotic analgesic properties comparable to morphine. Like many other drugs, its first uses were medicinal: since the 60s, it has been used to treat opioid addiction and as a substitute to heroin, with gradually decreasing prescribed doses in order to eliminate dependency.

Metabolism

Primarily, methadone is metabolized into EDDP and EMDP, two inactive metabolites. A range of 5-50 percent of methadone is eliminated unaltered, with 3-25% being excreted as the metabolite EDPP. Such large variations are due to variations in urine volume and pH, as well as drug interaction, drug dose, metabolism rate, and others. Methadone’s elimination half-life also varies, ranging from 15-55 hours.

Testing

Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) as well as other immunoassays are widely used to detect both methadone and EDDP in urine. There are independent methods used to specify which of the two is present, and confirmation is recommended via GC/MS or LC/MS/MS.

Opiates

About

Opiates are analgesic alkaloid compounds that occur naturally in the opium poppy plant. Opioids, on the other hand, are drugs that have opium-like effects: this includes opiates as well as semi-synthetic opioids and synthetic opioids. Examples of semi-synthetic opioids are heroin, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone and oxymorphone, while examples of synthetic opioids are fentanyl, buprenorphone, and methadone. In general, opioids have a high potential for abuse, and can be taken by snorting, through subcutaneous or intravenous injection and smoking.

Metabolism

Morphine has quick absorption, with plasma peak levels between 15-60 minutes after an oral dose, or 15 minutes after IV injection. Around 60-80 percent of the drug is excreted as morphine-3-glucuronide, and the percentage of unchanged drug excreted varies from two to 12 percent. Heroin is first metabolized to 6-monoacetylmorphine and then to morphine, with plasma half-life of 3 minutes. Between 50 and 60 percent of the drug is excreted as glucuronides, and about seven percent is excreted unchanged. Likewise, codeine is quickly absorbed and metabolized to codeine-6-clucuronide and morphine. Detection of opiates may be possible for two to four days after use.

Abuse

Morphine and heroin are used via intravenous injection, and are the most abused opioids, closely followed by codeine, oxycodone, and others. The effects of opioid use usually include analgesia, euphoria, mood changes, confusion, constipation and respiratory depression, and overdosing can occur, which may lead to pinpoint pupils, respiratory depression and coma.

Testing

Enzyme immunoassay is widely used to detect codeine and morphine. Hydrocone and hydromorphone are also detected by immunoassay. To detect oxycodone, an immunoassay screen with higher sensitivity and specificity is required. Special attention must be paid to positive opiate testing results, as different or additional substances may appear as a result of metabolism: for example, both codeine and morphine may appear in a codeine user’s results, as codeine is metabolized to morphine. Another example is that low morphine and codeine concentrations in urine don’t particularly indicate if the drug taken was codeine, morphine or heroin. Thus, confirmation methods are required, such as GC/MS or LC/MS/MS.

Oxycodone

About

Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid with narcotic analgesic properties. It is synthesized from an opioid alkaloid called thebaine. Oxycodone is usually indicated for moderate to severe pain relief, and as many other drugs, was initially developed as medication.

Metabolism

After an oral dose, about eight to 14 percent is excreted unaltered over a period of 24 hours.

Abuse

Regarding abuse, Oxycontin (the trade name of a number of Schedule II prescription drugs that have oxycodone as active ingredient) is more widely used than other products containing oxycodone. For instance, it has more oxycodone per tablet than other products, and no aspirin or acetaminophen. The tablets are either chewed or snorted after being crushed; this way, the slow release properties are destroyed and an intense high is achieved.

Testing

Since regular immunoassay screens used for opiates do not usually detect oxycodone, an enzyme immunoassay is recommended, and confirmation should be performed via GC/MS or LC/MS/MS.

Phencyclidine

About

Originally used as an intravenous anesthetic and veterinary tranquilizer in the 50s, today PCP is a widely abused drug. It can be taken by smoking, oral ingestion, snorting or intravenous injection.

Metabolism

PCP is highly metabolized, with between 10 and 15% excreted unchanged and around 65% excreted as metabolites. Variations occur according to the urine’s pH, and frequency of use, resulting in varied excretion periods.

Abuse

PCP has a wide number of effects (hallucinogenic, depressant, stimulant and analgesic), as it interacts with a large number of neurotransmitter systems. It can cause agitation, hostility, stupor, paranoia, delusions of grandeur, anxiety, coma, and even death after the ingestion of 120mg.

Testing

Immunoassay methods are commonly used to detect PCP and metabolites. Confirmation is usually performed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), both of which offer high sensitivity and specificity. In this case, a confirmation is highly recommended, since false positive immunoassays can occur after the use of Mellaril, Benadryl or Thorazine.

Steroids

A steroid is an organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific configuration, and is found in different forms (that is, different steroids) in plants, animals, fungi and in synthetic form produced in laboratories.

Metabolism

Testosterone and its synthetic analogs are metabolized into metabolites, and are excreted in the urine.

Abuse

While the medical use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) is limited, they are widely abused as performance-enhancers in sports and as ‘social enhancers’ particularly in teenagers and young adults, who use it to improve their physique and appearance. The use of AAS has effects such as gynecomastia, acne, suppression of endogenous hormone production, mood swings aggression, liver toxicity, infertility and masculinization in females.

Testing

Please check.

Stimulants

About

Stimulants are psychoactive drugs that lead to temporary improvements in physical and/or mental function and performance. Several of categories of stimulants exist, as it encompasses a number of different drugs. Categories include amphetamine and methamphetamines, cocaine, caffeine, nicotine, and others, with varying degrees of legality, classification and effects. In general, stimulants cause wakefulness, motivation, increased heart rate/blood pressure, alertness, and lack of sleep, and can cause tremors, headaches, restlessness and psychotic episodes.

Metabolism

The majority of stimulants are excreted unchanged in the urine, although there are exceptions (such as cocaine).

Abuse

Stimulants are widely abused and can be highly addictive. Since stimulants encompass such a large number of substances, the level of dependence and use will also vary.

Testing

Immunoassay screens are widely used to detect stimulants, and confirmation is usually performed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS).

Synthetic Cannabinoids

About

While the name “Synthetic Cannabinoids” is widely use, these drugs are not similar, chemically, to cannabinoids; rather, they act as cannabinoids. There are seven major groups of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists: Naphthoylindoles; Naphthylmethylindoles; Naphthoylpyrroles;Naphthylmethylindenes; Phenylacetylindoles; Cyclohexylphenols, and Classical cannabinoids.

Metabolism

There are very few studies conducted on humans, and therefore little knowledge exists with regard to the pharmacology and toxicology of synthetic cannabinoids. Certain metabolites of cannabinoids can be detected up to 72 hours in urine, but this time could be longer in chronic users. Ingestion is confirmed through saliva, up to 48 hours after consumption.

Abuse

As mentioned above, little is known about the particularities of synthetic cannabinoids, which includes its long-term effects. A number of herbal smoking blends exist, promising much stronger effects than marijuana. These blends are smoked in pipes, vaporizers, or joints. Reported effects include confusion, dizziness, nausea, rapid heart rate and agitation.

Testing

Please check.

Urine Creatinine

Creatinine occurs as a result of muscle metabolism, and can be detected in urine in order to indicate urine-water content, or as a marker. Lower creatinine levels indicate a higher content of water in urine, and vice-versa.

In results, < 20mg/dL indicate increased water or liquid intake, which can point to an attempt of diluting drug content; <2.0mg/dL indicates an extremely low creatinine amount, which may suggest that the specimen is inconsistent with normal human urine. Please note that these are general guidelines, and ASC recommends you consult with certified laboratories before taking any other action.

ASC Newsletter
Subscribe To Email List
Testimonials
View Cart  
this is the alt text
this is the alt text
this is the alt text